Important Wars & Dates & People I Should Make A Note Of:

Notes from September 5, 2017

SHERMAN: only famous in the US; make war so terrible that they’ll never do it again; you can attack civilians in situations of military necessity/when necessary; Limited war isn’t really popular because it’s easier to write laws than it is to put them into practice or enforce them and also winning is preferred and better or considered more important than civilian safety

ST. THOMAS AQUINAS: Limited war (constraining)

ST. AUGUSTINE: Just war (justified)

FRANCISCO DE VITORIA: if you NEED it, okay

JEAN-JACQUES ROUSSEAU: They’re only the enemy if they’re in uniform; there’s no such thing as a permanent enemy

EMMERICH DE VATTEL: population itself could lose its essential immunity if it becomes directly active in the war

HUGO GROTINUS: (most famous lawyer in Western history) contributed:
– sovereignty
– international law
– legal code/codify war systems

HENRI DUNANT (ICRC) & GUSTAVE MOYNIER: contributed:
– 1864 Geneva convention (first of many)
– Geneva convention was first about POWs and combatants
– 19th century: worried about soldiers (war= army vs. army)
– 20th century: worried about civilians
– the shift in concern was because the targets/victims changed
– war crimes
– starts in 19th century –> today
– international attempt to codify Grotius’ stuff (17th century)/war in general BECAUSE of 30 years war (Catholic vs. protestant, lots of death, damn)

OTHER STUFF NOT SPECIFIC TO PEOPLE/FIGURES:

  • different leaders/cultures have different views of what’s okay/necessary; defined by generations
  • wartime: blurred reality
  • customary law- ~majority opinion, really SHOULD follow
    • when does something become customary law? (does the country matter?)
    • does it apply to non-state actors?
  • what about the NPT?- get rid of all the nukes!
  • sign vs. ratify
  • CARE: NGO based in Atlanta; dates from WWII
  • OXFAM: Oxford Famine Relief; dates from WWII
  • 4the Geneva convention: Civilian protection in 1949; 1977: civil war, not just international war
  • genocide convention: 1946
  • UN- 1947
    • Security Council: US, France, Great Britain, Russia, China (China got their seat later than the others) (more power; if a resolution passes, it becomes INTERNATIONAL LAW)
      • these countries have veto power; USA uses their veto power the most
    • General Assembly: all countries (less important than Security Council, legally)

September 12, 2017

BARTOLOME DE LAS CASAS

JUAN GINES DE SEPULVIDA

CORTES

PIZARRO

September 18, 2017

TCLITD

  • Byzantine Empire at the Battle of Manzikert (Malazgirt) (1071) (36).
  • The last independent Armenian kingdom fell in 1375 to the Mamluks of Egypt (37).
  • “Armenians migrated to Georgia, Crimea, or the Ottoman capital Istanbul, or were forcibly moved by the Persian Shah Abbas I to Isfahan (1604).”
  • Persian Empire became Russian Empire after 1828
  • Persian Armenian Joseph Emin (1726-1809)