Class Discussion Notes from Sept. 21

Dashnaks wanted autonomy, not independence, from the Ottoman Empire

Apparently there were 6 Armenian “vilayets”

Eastern Crisis 1876-78 (big defeat) – they lost Bulgaria, Bosnia, Montenegro, Serbia (Balkans just shrunk, Ottoman holdings in the Balkans shrunk)- People are fleeing these places and going to what’s left of the Ottoman Empire

In the Russian-Ottoman war, the Russians won lots of land 

The six vilayets were the units that were pushing for autonomy (not independence because they were pragmatic)

Plurality: they’re the largest group but not the majority

Hunchaks vs Dashnaks (mostly in Ottoman Armenia) scattered, the group you’re most likely to meet in the US

1908: Young Turks CUP (Committee of Union and Progress) overthrew Abdul Hamit II

Became evermore Turkish Nationalist

When did WWI start for the Ottomans?

1912-1913 Balkan War (big defeat) (CUP becomes autocratic, Turkish nationalism goes up) – Northern Greece, Albania declared independence (which started the war), Kosovo, Macedonia gained independence

Muhacir – the Muslim refugees from the Balkans

Taner Alcgam (exactly one result on Google)

Wherever there weren’t any Turks they sent the Muhacirs to kind of even the population out

Attitude of Muhacirs after they fled: if the Ottoman empire has shrunk and they lost the caucuses and South of Anatolia everyone is Arab, Muhacirs were worried they wouldn’t have anywhere else to go

Genocide starts when “it’s us or them”

Started when the Ottoman government demobilized Armenian soldiers (early 1915) and sent them into labor battalions

1912 is the real beginning of WWI- 1914 is just when it gets bigger

The war ended for the Ottomans and Turks closer to 1923 than 1918 when the Turkish Empire was established

Sarajevo June 1914

Ottomans entered the war in October 1914

Sarıkamış (December 1914- January 1915) stop attacking Russia in the fucking winter

Image result for duh meme

Triumvirate (Enver, Talat, Cemal) Enver: Minister of War that led the 3rd army into Sarıkamış, Talat: Minister of Interior, Cemal: Commander in Syria (where all of the Armenians are sent) and the Minister of the Navy

Talat issued the order of deportations (there’s a dispute about that; there’s no “smoke and gun”- no one can really find that order)

Mass Arrest- the beginning of the Genocide (April 1915)

Accused Ottoman Armenians of fighting with Russians behind the lines

Dashnak up to the mass arrests were negotiating heavily with Talat- (then Talat basically arrests them all)

What’s the state argument arguing against genocide? Military necessity (Lieber Code) There’s no proof of intent to kill- they can’t find the order, bad apple argument, chaos argument (wartime, people died everywhere), term genocide didn’t exist yet (developed in 1943)- breaking a law that doesn’t exist yet (a legalistic argument), Ottoman empire isn’t actually the Turkish republic (the Turkish republic overthrew the Ottoman empire)